A class is a user-defined blueprint or prototype from which objects are created. Classes provide a means of bundling data and functionality together. Creating a new class creates a new type of object, allowing new instances of that type to be made. Each class instance can have attributes attached to it for maintaining its state. Class instances can also have methods (defined by its class) for modifying its state.
To understand the need for creating a class let’s consider an example, let’s say you wanted to track the number of dogs which may have different attributes like breed, age. If a list is used, the first element could be the dog’s breed while the second element could represent its age. Let’s suppose there are 100 different dogs, then how would you know which element is supposed to be which? What if you wanted to add other properties to these dogs? This lacks organization and it’s the exact need for classes.
Class creates a user-defined data structure, which holds its own data members and member functions, which can be accessed and used by creating an instance of that class. A class is like a blueprint for an object.
Some points on Python class:
Classes are created by keyword class.
Attributes are the variables that belong to class.
Attributes are always public and can be accessed using dot (.) operator. Eg.: Myclass.Myattribute


<strong>Class Definition Syntax:</strong> class ClassName:     
# Statement-1     
.     .     .     
# Statement-N 
<strong>Defining a class –</strong>

python class

Declaring Objects (Also called instantiating a class)
When an object of a class is created, the class is said to be instantiated. All the instances share the attributes and the behavior of the class. But the values of those attributes, i.e. the state are unique for each object. A single class may have any number of instances.
Example:

python declaring an object

Declaring an object


# Python program to
# demonstrate instantiating
# a class


classDog: 

# A simple class
# attribute
attr1 ="mamal"
attr2 ="dog"

# A sample method  
deffun(self): 
print("I'm a", self.attr1)
print("I'm a", self.attr2)

# Driver code
# Object instantiation
Rodger =Dog()

# Accessing class attributes
# and method through objects
print(Rodger.attr1)
Rodger.fun()

Output:
mamal I’m a mamal I’m a dog
In the above example, an object is created which is basically a dog named Rodger. This class only has two class attributes that tell us that Rodger is a dog and a mammal.
The self
Class methods must have an extra first parameter in method definition. We do not give a value for this parameter when we call the method, Python provides it.
If we have a method which takes no arguments, then we still have to have one argument.
This is similar to this pointer in C++ and this reference in Java.
When we call a method of this object as myobject.method(arg1, arg2), this is automatically converted by Python into MyClass.method(myobject, arg1, arg2) – this is all the special self is about.
__init__ method:
The __init__ method is similar to constructors in C++ and Java. Constructors are used to initialize the object’s state. Like methods, a constructor also contains a collection of statements(i.e. instructions) that are executed at the time of Object creation. It is run as soon as an object of a class is instantiated. The method is useful to do any initialization you want to do with your object.

# A Sample class with init method 
classPerson: 
# init method or constructor  
def__init__(self, name): 
self.name =name 
# Sample Method  
defsay_hi(self): 
print('Hello, my name is', self.name)
p =Person('Nikhil') 
p.say_hi() 

 
Output:
Hello, my name is Nikhil
Class and Instance Variables
Instance variables are for data unique to each instance and class variables are for attributes and methods shared by all instances of the class. Instance variables are variables whose value is assigned inside a constructor or method with self whereas class variables are variables whose value is assigned in the class.
Defining instance varibale using constructor.

# Python program to show that the variables with a value  
# assigned in the class declaration, are class variables and 
# variables inside methods and constructors are instance 
# variables. 

# Class for Dog 
classDog: 

# Class Variable 
animal ='dog'

# The init method or constructor 
def__init__(self, breed, color): 

# Instance Variable     
self.breed =breed
self.color =color        

# Objects of Dog class 
Rodger =Dog("Pug", "brown") 
Buzo =Dog("Bulldog", "black") 

print('Rodger details:')   
print('Rodger is a', Rodger.animal) 
print('Breed: ', Rodger.breed)
print('Color: ', Rodger.color)

print('\nBuzo details:')   
print('Buzo is a', Buzo.animal) 
print('Breed: ', Buzo.breed)
print('Color: ', Buzo.color)

# Class variables can be accessed using class 
# name also 
print("\nAccessing class variable using class name")
print(Dog.animal)        

Output:
Rodger details: Rodger is a dog Breed: Pug Color: brown Buzo details: Buzo is a dog Breed: Bulldog Color: black Accessing class variable using class name dog
Defining instance variable using the normal method.

# Python program to show that we can create  
# instance variables inside methods 

# Class for Dog 
classDog: 

# Class Variable 
animal ='dog'

# The init method or constructor 
def__init__(self, breed): 

# Instance Variable 
self.breed =breed             

# Adds an instance variable  
defsetColor(self, color): 
self.color =color 

# Retrieves instance variable     
defgetColor(self):     
returnself.color    

# Driver Code 
Rodger =Dog("pug") 
Rodger.setColor("brown") 
print(Rodger.getColor())  
Output:
brown

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