Đông Sơn drums

Đông Sơn drums (also called Heger Type I drums) are bronze drums fabricated by the  Đông Sơn culture in the Red River Data of northern Vietnam. The drums were produced from about 600 BCE or earlier until the third century CE and are one of the culture’s finest examples of Metalworking.

The drums, cast in bronze using the lost-wax casting method are up to a meter in height and weigh up to 100 kilograms (220 lb). Đông Sơn drums were apparently both musical instrument and cult objects. They are decorated with geometric patterns, scenes of daily life and war, animals and birds, and boats. The latter alludes to the importance of trade to the culture in which they were made, and the drums themselves became objects of trade and heirlooms. More than 200 have been found, across an area from eastern Indonesia to Vietnam and parts of Southern China.



The earliest drum found in 1976 existed 2700 years ago in Wangjiaba in Yunnan Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture China. It is classified into the bigger and heavier Yue drums including the Dong Son drums, and the Dian drums, into 8 subtypes, purported to be invented by Ma Yuan and Zhuge Liang. But the Book of the Later Han said Ma melt the bronze drums seized from the rebel Lạc Việt in into horse.

The discovery of Đông Sơn drums in New Guinea, is seen as proof of trade connections – spanning at least the past thousand years – between this region and the technologically advanced societies of Java and China.

In 1902, a collection of 165 large bronze drums was published by F. Heger, who subdivided them into a classification of four types.



RobotCup: The Future Champion League

RoboCup is an annual international robotic competition proposed in 1997 and founded in 1997. The aim is to promote robotics and AI research, by offering a publicly appealing, but formidable challenge. The name RoboCup is a contraction of the competition’s full name, “Robot Soccer World Cup”, but there are many other stages of the competition such as “RoboCupRescue”, “RoboCup@Home” and “RoboCupJunior”. In 2015 the world’s competition was held in Heifei, China. RoboCup 2016 will be held in Leipzig, Germany. The official goal of the project:

“By the middle of the 21st century, a team of fully autonomous humanoid robot soccer players shall win a soccer game, complying with the official rules of FIFA, against the winner of the most recent World Cup”.

As a Master student of Frankfurt University, I aslo have a project with the Robot who is the best choice for for the Robot Cup as the moment, his name is NAO.


Nao (pronounced now) is an autonomous, programmable humanoid robot developed by Aldebaran Robotics, a French robotics company headquartered in Paris. The robot’s development began with the launch of Project Nao in 2004. On 15 August 2007, Nao replaced Sony’s robot dog Aibo as the robot used in the Robot Cup Standard Platform League, an international robot soccer competition. The Nao was used in RoboCup 2008 and 2009, and the NaoV3R was chosen as the platform for the SPL at RoboCup 2010. Nao robots have been used for research and education purposes in numerous academic institutions worldwide. As of 2015, over 5,000 Nao units are in use in more than 50 countries.